Mashhad is a big city in northeast of Iran and is center of the Khorasan state. It was the capital of Iran in Afsharid dynasty. Mashhad, is Iran’s second largest city after Tehran. This city because of the shrine of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Shia, annually receives more than 30 million pilgrims from inside and outside of the Iran. This city has an international airport, a railway station and three terminals. Mashhad economy relies on religious tourism which is focused on the shrine of Imam Reza.
Iran’s most important religious site is Imam Reza’s shrine which includes several museums are set in shrine complex. This collection in term of area is the largest mosque in the world.
About Imam Reza:
Ali Ibn Musa Al Reza, known as Reza is the eighth imam for Shia after his father Imam Musa Kazim. Ali Ibn Musa was born in Medina and died in Khorasan. Reza was living in a during that Abbasid caliphs were facing many problems including the multiple uprisings of Shias. Mamun, to overcome the riots, decided to involved Reza in the state. He realized his mistake later and to compensate for that wrong, decided to poison him and fed him from his path. Reza was buried in Khorasan. His tomb is annually visited by millions of Shia Muslims.
Some of the historical attractions of Mashhad include: 1-Nadir Shah mausoleum 2-Ferdosi’s tomb 3-Adobe dome 4-Harunyeh dome 5-Abasgholi Khan school
Qajar Bath is one of the oldest and largest bathhouses of Iran which is located in Qazvin. It has built by one of the Safavieh captains and by the order of ‘Shah Abbas’ king. It’s area is about 1045 square meters. Qazvin is one of the major and historical cities of Iran. Qazvin was Iran’s capital during the reign of Safavieh and that’s why that it has many historical sites and museums in itself. Qazvin has the first rank in term of number of historical monuments in Iran.
Constitutional house, is one of the historic homes in Tabriz which is located in west of Tabriz Bazaar. This building has built in the architectural style of the Qajar era. Grand Turks after ball closing of the National Assembly by Mohammad Ali Shah, gathered in this house and paid consultation. In this place has been formed Tabriz association meetings and there was headquarters of residents. Important people who have been looked at this place and consultation activities were ‘Sattar Khan’ and ‘Baqir Khan’. The most important monuments in this Museum are Sattar khan pistol, constitutional carpet and other relevant documents with the Constitutional Revolution.
Avicenna Museum opend in the tomb of Bu-Ali Sina, in Hamadan. This museum introduces the character of Avicenna and traditional medicine. Tomb of ‘Sheikh Al-Raees Bu-Ali Sina’ or Avicenna tomb is the memorial monument of Sheikh Al-Raees Ibn Sina who is the famous Iranian philosopher, scientist and physician. Avicenna tomb was built during the Qajar. The grandson of Fath-Ali Shah ordered to built this mausoleum. the building of the tomb has a fusion of two architectural style: ‘ancient Iran’ and ‘Islamic Iran’.
Ganjali Khan Complex is located in Kerman city centre and beside the Grand Bazaar of Kerman. Ganjali khan was a famous ruler from Shah Abbas era who has built many buildings and worked hard to frequented this area. Ganjali Khan complex area has 11,000 square meters. The complex buildings is consists of Square, Bazaar, Mosque, Bathhouse, School, Mint and Cistern.
Current use of buildings:
Mint: Coin Museum
Bathhouse: Anthropology Museum
This Zoroastrian Fire Temple is the shrine of Zoroastrians who live in Yazd. The entrance of this Temple always had been associated with the customs. Including Cleaning of women and men. The sacred fire is inside a large firebox which is made of bronze and Someone called “Hirbod” is responsible for keeping it. Visitors of this fire temple always can see that from behind a glass wall. The fire which burns within this fire temple is more than 1,500 years that remains clear.
Negarestan Garden was created by order of ‘Fathali Shah Qajar’ for the summer residence. It was built out of Tehran during construction, but when the range was added to the Tehran, this new fences was erected at the inside. Spring house of Negarestan Garden now is the National Art Museum of Iran. This collection includes works of arts from Iranian artists which is located in the north of Parliament Square.
It has two building inside by the name ‘Hall of Delgosha’ and ‘Hall of Ghalamdan’. Rooms with wooden doors and two large halls around the central building is there. The garden has 64 rooms, four emulator and library. Forums are decorated with mirror work, golden work and precious chandeliers and hand signs of artists such as Johnny Mirza, Mirza Baba and Abdullah Khan has drawn on it. Negarestan Garden has regular streets and trees and flowers are planted beautifully. Several large and small mansions are built in the garden, which includes a spring house, pergola, bath slides, inside and more.
Now it has several statues in itself like ‘Kamal-ol-molk’, the Iranian famous painter and the Ferdowsi statue and the Iranian famous poet ‘Malek Al-Shoara Bahar'(Mohammad-Taqi Bahar) and . .
Carpet Museum of Iran
Carpet-Weaving is undoubtedly one of the most distinguished manifestations of Iranian culture and art, dating back to the Bronze Age, but as the materials which used in carpets are include wool and cotton, decay into dust during the course of time, archaeologists couldn’t make any special discovery during the archaeological excavations. What have remained for us from the early ages as evidence of carpet-weaving are nothing more than a few pieces of worn-out rugs.
Such fragments do not help very much to recognizing the carpet-weaving characteristics of Pre-Seljuk period (13th and 14th centuries AD). Among the oldest discovered pieces, some are founded in Eastern Turkestan, dating back to the third to fifth centuries AD, and also some of the hand-weavings of the Seljuks of Asia Minor are on exhibit in Alaeddin Mosque in Konya and Ashrafoghlu Mosque in Beyshehir, Turkey. These pieces attract the attention of researchers earlier this century, and now they are kept in the ‘Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art’ in Istanbul and the Mevlana(Rumi) Museum in Konya.
In a unique archaeological excavation in 1949, the exceptional Pazyryk carpet was discovered among the ices of Pazyryk Valley, in Altai Mountains in Siberia. It was discovered in the grave of a Scythian Prince by a group of Russian archaeologists under the supervision of professor Rudenko. Radiocarbon testing revealed that Pazyryk carpet was woven in the 5th century BC. This carpet is 1.83×2 meters and has 36 symmetrical knots per cm2. The advanced weaving technique used in the Pazyryk carpet indicates a long history of evolution and experience of this art. Most experts believe that the Pazyryk carpet is the final achievement of at least one thousand years of experience and history. According to this theory the art of carpet-weaving in Iran is at least 3500 years old.
In 1978, the founders of the Carpet Museum of Iran established this museum with a limited number of Persian carpets and kilims, in order to revive and develop the art of carpet-weaving in the country and to provide a source to satisfy the need for research about the historical background and evolution of this art.
The Carpet Museum of Iran, with its beautiful architecture and facade resembling a carpet-weaving loom is located on the northwest of Laleh Park in Tehran. It has composed of two exhibition galleries covering an area of 3400 m2. The ground floor gallery is assigned for permanent exhibitions and the upper floor gallery is considered as the temporary exhibitions of carpets, kilims, and carpet designs.
Golestan Palace dates back to the reign of Shah Abbas Safavi and in the ‘Karim Khan Zand’ period, there have been fundamental changes in this complex, But the real importance of this Arg dates back to the era of ‘Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar’.
One of the oldest of historic monuments in Tehran is masterpiece of the Qajar era. This complex also called ‘Roseland Palace’ or ‘Palace & Flowers’.
The Golestan Complex belongs to a group of royal buildings which were once enclosed within the mud-thatched walls of Tehran’s Historic Arg (Citadel). That’s a masterpiece of beautiful gardens and buildings consist of collection of Iranian crafts and European presents from 18th and 19th century.
These are some of Golestan Complex places :
Iran National Art Museum
Iran National Art Museum is the collection includes the best national arts in recent years such as Miniatures, gilding, inlaid, tile, carpet weaving, cloth weaving, enamels, engraving and mosaic.
80 years ago ‘Behzad Taherzadeh’ founded this museum. He was a famous rug painter and designer. It’s buildings are related to Qajar dynasty. The old mansion of National Art Museum goes back to the ‘Fath Ali Shah’ time.
Contemporary Arts Museum of Tehran is the largest art museum in Iran. This museum is one of the most prominent museums in Tehran. This museum, outside of Iran is known as «TMoCA» (from the «Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art»). It has collections of more than 3000 items that include 19th and 20th century’s world-class, European and American paintings, drawings and sculptures. It has one of the greatest collections of Iranian modern and contemporary arts.
The museum was opened by Queen Farah Pahlavi just two years before the 1979 Iran’s Revolution. The museum building was designed by ‘Kamran Diba’ and is inspired by the Iranian wind towers. In 1970 decade, high oil revenues allow Iran to buy art works which were recognized internationally. At this time, purchases of Pahlavi and the need of Iranian modern artists to a space to present their works, leading to the formation of this idea to build the Tehran’s Museum of Contemporary Arts. That include the most valuable collections of modern western arts which are outside of America and Europe.
Sculptures by artists such as Giacometti, Ernst, Moore and Magritte can be found in the museum’s gardens.
It is approximately £2.5 million worth of artworks which has shown at this museum.
There are numerous numbers of royal items such as gold , diamond and precious handcrafted crown swords and maces that was collected by the Iraninan kings over the times.
some famous jewels that are in the museum are:
Darya-e Noor Diamond (Daria-i-Noor Diamond)
The Pahlavi Crown
The Noor Al Ain Tiara
The Imperial Sword
The Naderi Throne
The museum has onsite guides with knowledge of Persian, English, French and Russian languages.
The Sa’dabad Complex, at first was built by Qajar kings in 19th century. After development of the complex, Reza Shah Pahlavi lived there in 1920s, and his son, Mohammad Reza, moved there in 1970s. After the 1979 Revolution of Iran, the complex became a museum.
Museums and palaces in this complex are mentioned below:
Bahman palace: It was Bahman’s house. He was the son of ‘Gholamreza Pahlavi’, the brother of the king.
Green palace(Marmar palace): That’s one of the most beautiful palaces in Iran. The grand floor was the location and workplace of the ‘Reza Shah’.
White palace: It’s the biggest palace in Sa’dabad Complex. It was the summer residence of the king and his wife Farah.
Water museum: The museum building has main section and sub-section. The sub-section was special workplace of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Ostad Behzad museum: At the time of the Pahlavi dynasty it was workplace and resorts of the Reza Shah.
Carriage house museum: It was resorts of the coachman.
Mir Emad museum: It was the house of Alireza and Farahnaz, Mohammad Reza’s children. After the Iran revolution this building dedicated to showing of Manuscripts.
Royal containers: Decorative dishes and objects are showing there, divided into four categories: Qajar dishes, first Pahlavi, second Pahlavi, donated containers.
Anthropology museum: The museum contains a full set of human culture tools and life styles and mirrors of some aspects of human life styles.
Miniature museum: It was the summer residence of Leyla Pahlavi, Youngest daughter of Mohammad Reza.
Mahmoud Farshchian miniature museum: It was the location of ‘Reza shah’ and his fourth wife, ‘Esmat’.
Shahram palace: It was the second wife of ‘Reza shah’ residence, ‘Tadj ol-Molouk’. Now it’s a military museum.
Beautiful Arts museum(Black Palace): It was the council of the ministry of court.
Nations Art museum: That’s a collection includes valuable works from four corners of the world in these categories:
1-Ancient art of Iran
2-Maya and Inka civilization
4-Contemporary art of Iran and word.
One Of The Symbols Of Tehran
The Azadi Tower was completed in 1971 and in that time the tower also named as Shahyad Tower, means ‘the memorial of the king’.
The architect of the tower was ‘Hossein Amanat’. He won the best design idea in competition for Azadi Tower design.
The tower is a part of the Azadi Cultural Complex, located in Tehran’s Azadi Square in an area of about 50,000 m².
There are several fountains around the base of the tower and a museum in underground. The architecture of the tower is a combination of pre-Islam and past-Islam architecture era.
The height of the tower itself is 45 meter (148 ft) and the cost of building this complex in 1971 was 6 million dollar.
Right now Azadi complex has a nationality & cultural museum and amphitheater. Here, for the first time, Iranian government revealed The Cyrus Charter of Human Rights.
Monument, Museum, National & Resort
Historical Bazaar, Monument, Museum