Si-o-se-pol or ‘Allah-Verdi-Khan’ is a bridge with 33 spans, 295 meters long and 14 meters wide, which is made by ‘Allahverdi Khan’ on the ‘Zayandeh Roud’ river in the city of Isfahan, Simultaneous with the reign of Shah Abbas Safavi. This bridge was the venue for the ‘Ab Pashan’ celebration and also ‘Khaj Shouyan’ ceremony which are the Armenian ceremonies in the Safavid period.
Sykes, know the ‘Si-o-se pol’ one of the best bridges in the world.
Chardin, considers it an architectural masterpiece and wonderful surprise.
Dan Garcia, knows it one of the best architectures of Iran.
Lord Curzon, says: “Man to see what can be called the world’s most magnificent bridges, had to travel to Iran.”
Yazd Amir Chakhmaq complex is consist of a market, a mosque and two old cisterns, which are for the Timurid period in nineteenth century. Amir Chakhmaq Square is one of the most remarkable historical and tourism collections in the city of Yazd. Eight person of the Iran-Iraq war martyrs were buried in the field of this complex.
Mashhad is a big city in northeast of Iran and is center of the Khorasan state. It was the capital of Iran in Afsharid dynasty. Mashhad, is Iran’s second largest city after Tehran. This city because of the shrine of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Shia, annually receives more than 30 million pilgrims from inside and outside of the Iran. This city has an international airport, a railway station and three terminals. Mashhad economy relies on religious tourism which is focused on the shrine of Imam Reza.
Iran’s most important religious site is Imam Reza’s shrine which includes several museums are set in shrine complex. This collection in term of area is the largest mosque in the world.
About Imam Reza:
Ali Ibn Musa Al Reza, known as Reza is the eighth imam for Shia after his father Imam Musa Kazim. Ali Ibn Musa was born in Medina and died in Khorasan. Reza was living in a during that Abbasid caliphs were facing many problems including the multiple uprisings of Shias. Mamun, to overcome the riots, decided to involved Reza in the state. He realized his mistake later and to compensate for that wrong, decided to poison him and fed him from his path. Reza was buried in Khorasan. His tomb is annually visited by millions of Shia Muslims.
Some of the historical attractions of Mashhad include: 1-Nadir Shah mausoleum 2-Ferdosi’s tomb 3-Adobe dome 4-Harunyeh dome 5-Abasgholi Khan school
Behistun inscription is one of the world’s largest inscriptions, the first known text of Persia and of the Achaemenid dynasty. This inscription is in Bisotun in Kermanshah Province and is located on the Bisotun hillside. Behistun is one of the world’s most famous and important historical documents. It’s one of the Iran registered on UNESCO World Heritage monuments.
1-The Goudarz inscription: G. body is a work that Goudarz of Ashkanian kings left from him on this mount.
2-Statue of Hercules: Hercules statue was built during the Seleucid era.
3-Sheikh Ali Khan Zanganeh inscription
4-Farhad Tarash: That’s belong to the Sassanid era.
Masuleh is an historical and tourist village in north of Iran which is green and always have good weather. There have foggy weather most of the times, cool summers and full snow winters. That is a village in the southwest of Gilan province in Fuman area. That’s a good weather village in Iran and each year tens of thousands of tourists visit there. There is known in the world, for having it’s unique architecture. Two hotels within the traditional architecture space of Masuleh and several hotels on the road, are serving Iranian and foreign tourists. Village architecture is described in this sentence: ”High building yard is down building roof”.
Alamut Castle is one of the unique historical castles in Iran and in north of Qazvin. Alamut fortress is located on top of a cliff with a height of 2163 meters above sea level. Around the castle from all four sides, there is promontory and the only entrance to the castle is at the northeastern end of it.
Hassan Sabbah occupied this castle in the year 486 AH. This castle is known for the military and security operations, which have down there by Hassan Sabbah. Hassan Sabbah was one of the Iranians who was resurrected in the Seljuk period. His religion and his followers were ‘Shia Ismaili’, a branch of Shia that believes to seven Imam. The center of their power was in Egypt and Fatimid caliphs in Egypt had announced that as the official religion of this country. Hassan Sabbah, is the founder of the Isma’ilism in Iran.
Qajar Bath is one of the oldest and largest bathhouses of Iran which is located in Qazvin. It has built by one of the Safavieh captains and by the order of ‘Shah Abbas’ king. It’s area is about 1045 square meters. Qazvin is one of the major and historical cities of Iran. Qazvin was Iran’s capital during the reign of Safavieh and that’s why that it has many historical sites and museums in itself. Qazvin has the first rank in term of number of historical monuments in Iran.
Constitutional house, is one of the historic homes in Tabriz which is located in west of Tabriz Bazaar. This building has built in the architectural style of the Qajar era. Grand Turks after ball closing of the National Assembly by Mohammad Ali Shah, gathered in this house and paid consultation. In this place has been formed Tabriz association meetings and there was headquarters of residents. Important people who have been looked at this place and consultation activities were ‘Sattar Khan’ and ‘Baqir Khan’. The most important monuments in this Museum are Sattar khan pistol, constitutional carpet and other relevant documents with the Constitutional Revolution.
Avicenna Museum opend in the tomb of Bu-Ali Sina, in Hamadan. This museum introduces the character of Avicenna and traditional medicine. Tomb of ‘Sheikh Al-Raees Bu-Ali Sina’ or Avicenna tomb is the memorial monument of Sheikh Al-Raees Ibn Sina who is the famous Iranian philosopher, scientist and physician. Avicenna tomb was built during the Qajar. The grandson of Fath-Ali Shah ordered to built this mausoleum. the building of the tomb has a fusion of two architectural style: ‘ancient Iran’ and ‘Islamic Iran’.
Moayyedi Icehouse is the largest adobe Freezer in Iran and also in the word.
Kerman is one of the oldest communities in Iran’s central desert. The people of this county have converted this city into one of the most innovative cities in Iran, over the years.
Moayyedi Freezer is one of the historical monuments of the Kerman city. It’s building is consist of cisterns, pools, saunas, ice hole and dome.
Ganjali Khan Complex is located in Kerman city centre and beside the Grand Bazaar of Kerman. Ganjali khan was a famous ruler from Shah Abbas era who has built many buildings and worked hard to frequented this area. Ganjali Khan complex area has 11,000 square meters. The complex buildings is consists of Square, Bazaar, Mosque, Bathhouse, School, Mint and Cistern.
Current use of buildings:
Mint: Coin Museum
Bathhouse: Anthropology Museum
Borujerdis House is one of the historic monuments of Kashan. This building is built in 13th century, during the Qajar era. This house is exhibiting one of the most beautiful resplendency of Persian architecture. It is important in terms of architectural elements and interior decorating. Boroujerdis house is built in a land with 10700 square meters area and the building area is about 3,000 square meters.
Fin Garden is an Iranian garden in Kashan and Fin Bath also is located there and here is where that ‘Naser al-Din Shah Qajar’, killed his chancellor ‘Amir Kabir‘ in it. Fin and it’s monuments dating goes back to the Safavid period and the construction of this garden is attributed to ‘Shah Abbas 1(Abbas I of Persia)’. Developments of the garden continued during the ‘Shah Safi’ and ‘Shah Abbas II’ and reached to a peak. During the reign of ‘Fath-Ali Shah’, many parts were added to this garden. Garden area has 23 thousand square meters and includes a central courtyard. Fin and it’s set of buildings in Kashan, also reached to the UNESCO World record, a few years ago. This complex, along with the Naqsh-e Jahan Square and Chehel Sotoun palace in Isfahan city , will attract the most tourists of the Isfahan province.
Chehel Sotoun palace is one of the Isfahan’s monuments. The garden has an area of 67,000 square meters and It’s construction began in the reign of Shah Abbas I. Shah Abbas, founded a palace in the center of garden which was for forming the core of palace. Chehel Sotoun is one of the first structures which there have been used large decoration, mirror work, great wall paintings and wooden columns.
Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque is one of the famous and historical Isfahan mosques which built in the Safavid era. This mosque is a masterpiece of architecture and tiling in eleventh century in Iran. Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque built by Shah Abbas order. Construction of this mosque was after eighteen years. The mosque is named to one of the great scholars of the Safavid era, ‘Sheikh Lotfollah Jabal Amely’. Sheikh Lotfollah was one of the great scholars of the Safavid period. Sheikh Lotfollah is one of the most beautiful monuments of Isfahan city and one of the unique architectural masterpieces which can be seen in the sanctuary of this mosque.
Vank Cathedral means (Church of the Holy Savior) is a church in Jolfa district of Isfahan. This is one of the historical churches of the Armenians in Isfahan and was built in the time of Shah Abbas II. Vank means Monastery in the Armenian language. The Church area is 8731 square meters. At the top of the entrance door, the bell tower is built in three floors and on the second floor there is a large clock with weight of three kilograms. At the right of the entrance there is installed an inscription of marble. Vank Cathedral was built with adobe. Outside wall of the church is covered with brick and inside wall is covered with plaster. The church has two domes. Armenian churches domes are cone-shaped, but Vank Cathedral dome is built like the Safavid Iranian mosques domes. More paintings on the walls of the church has the Holy Bible themes and there are drawn images from birth to ascension of Jesus in them. This church is unique among Armenian churches in terms of gilding.
Menar Jonban is one of the historical monuments of Isfahan. The remarkable thing about this monument is that by moving a minaret, the other minaret moves. In Iran, some minarets are capable of shaking and say them so-called Monarjonban. One of the most famous Monarjonbans in Iran is located in Isfahan and another one is in the city of Ardakan in Yazd province. One of the wonders of this monument is the time of the construction of that, which dates back about 800 years ago and to the Ilkhani era.
Naghsh-e Jahan, is the central square of Isfahan and is located in heart of a historical collection named Naghsh-e Jahan. Monuments on the four sides of this square, including Ali Qapu, Shah Mosque, Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque and the Entrance of Qeysarie. In addition to these buildings, two hundred rooms with two floors are located there for supply the Isfahan’s handicrafts. Chambers around the square have long ago to sell handicrafts. Naghsh-e Jahan Square was one of the first Iranian signs that was registered as a UNESCO World Heritage.
Before that the Isfahan city to be chosen as the capital of Safavid, a large garden called “Naghsh e Jahan” was in the place of this square.
Pasargad World Heritage collection is a set of ancient structures remaining from the Achaemenid era that is located in the city of Pasargad in Fars province. This collection includes buildings such as: Tomb of the Great Cyrus, the Pasargad king’s garden, Gate of Palace, Bridge, Dedicated Palace, Summerhouse, fountain, tomb of Cambyses, Mozaffari inn, sacred ground and Bolaghi Gorge.
Pars family, who won on the Mads in 550 BCE, led by Cyrus II, based on the tradition of Cyrus II chose this area for the capital. Pasargad name comes in the Achaemenid period at the first and is said to the plain that the Great Cyrus chose there as his headquarters. Then the Achaemenid Empire was established and developed by his son Cambujieh and Darius. Achaemenid dynasty came to power Corp which is one of the remarkable events of ancient history. Achaemenid overcame the ancient world under the domination of his own, with the exception of two-thirds of Greece. Achaemenid empire consider as the first emperor in the history of word.
The most striking part of Pasargad, is the tomb of Great Cyrus which is glaring on the plain, like a gem. Cyrus in ancient times was remembered as who returned Jewish from exile. After the death of Cyrus in battle with the Secas(in north of Iran), his body was embalmed and laid in a bed of gold and put his kingdom precious objects on his side. In all Achaemenid era, the tomb of Cyrus was sacred, which means that this sanctity is preserved in the Islamic era. This monument is the tomb of the first harbinger of freedom and human rights in the world, the Great Cyrus.
Persepolis or Parseh (Takht-e Jamshid, Hezar Sotun, Sad Sotun or Chehel Menar) is one of the ancient cities of Iran that over the years, continuously was stately and ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire which was the Iranian king. In this ancient city, there is a palace called Persepolis which is built during the reign of Darius, Xerxes and Artaxerxes. In the year 518 BC, it was started as the new capital of the Achaemenid at Gamers. There was founded by Great Darius. Xerxes and his son ‘Artaxerxes’ by extending this complex expanded it.
Sassanid kings have left inscriptions at Persepolis on. After the advent of Islam in Iran, this place have be respected and it called ‘Hezar Sotun’ or ‘Chehel Menar’. Also there are other inscriptions at Persepolis in Arabic and Farsi. The most recent of them is related to the Qajar era.
That’s located in the north of Marvdasht city (northeast of the Fars province) and 57 kilometers from Shiraz. 6 kilometers from Persepolis is ‘Naqsh-e Rostam’. Tombs of the Kings like Darius, Xerxes, Artaxerxes I and Darius II are located in Naghsh-e Rostam.
This place since 1979, is one of the Iran’s records on the UNESCO World Heritage.
Shah Cheragh Mosque is a mausoleum in Shiraz which according to Shiite believes, Ahmad Ibn Musa Al Kazim, the eldest son of Imam Musa Kazim, as well as Mohammad Ibn Musa, the brother of Imam Reza, were buried there. Shiites believe that this tomb is very respected.
This building was built in Atabakan era in the sixth century and it’s dome and tomb has a beautiful tiling. Inside the shrine with the use of tiny colorful mirrors and by artistic styles, there are mirror works and the beautiful lines of Persian and Arabic which are decorated all around of mirrors and tiles.
Eram Garden in Shiraz is a historical Persian garden and includes several historic buildings and botanical gardens.
Date of manufacturing and the founder of this garden is not clearly specified, but we know that This garden has been in this place at the time of the Seljuk. At the time of ‘Karim Khan Zand‘ also he worked in the construction and improvement of this garden. At the time of the Qajar a building was built in the garden.
This garden has very high plant diversity and vegetation from around the world which have been planted in that. In the thirty fifth session of the World Heritage Committee of UNESCO, Eram is recorded in World Heritage List.
Saadi Tomb known as Sadieh, is the location and burial of Saadi, the great Persian poet. That’s located in the northeast of Shiraz. There was his first monastery, where he spent the end of his life and where he was buried. For the first time in the seventh century by the minister ‘Shams Al Din Mohammad Saheb Divani’, a tomb was built over the grave of Saadi.
About 65 years after the death of Hafez, ‘Shams Al-Din Mohammad Yaghmae’, Minister of ‘Mirza A. Gurkani’, The Fars ruler, for the first time, founded a domed edifice on Hafez’s tomb and in front of this building, constructed a large pool.
This Building, during the reign of ‘Shah Abbas Safavi’ and ‘Nader Shah Afshar’ was repaired and rebuilt. ‘Karim Khan Zand’ built a court on the tomb of Hafez, in his buildings style and placed a marble stone on its grave. Two sonnets of Hafez is written on this stone in Nasta’liq script.
Vakil Bazaar is one of the most traditional and historical Iran markets and a part of Vakil Complex, in city of Shiraz. The market was built by order of ‘Karim Khan Zand‘ and is located in center of the Shiraz city. Other places such as mosque and historic bath also have been located next to the bazaar. This market is one of the best remaining works of ‘Karim Khan Zand’ which still is in operation. Construction materials of the market’s building is on the basis of plaster and brick and limestone and is located on the base of boulder. The market have very high ceilings and have beautiful architecture.
Vakil Mosque is located near the Vakil Bazaar and Vakil Bath. That’s one of the beautiful monuments and strengthen of the Zand period which is important in terms of art and architecture. In the northern part of the mosque, was built an important and long vault which is famous to Morvarid.
Vakil Bathroom is at the center of the city and is located near monuments such as Vakil Bazaar and Vakil Mosque. The Scenic part of this bathroom, is a special section called ‘Shah Neshin’ which was predominantly for king. This large bathroom had the most advanced architectural principles of it’s time.
Negarestan Garden was created by order of ‘Fathali Shah Qajar’ for the summer residence. It was built out of Tehran during construction, but when the range was added to the Tehran, this new fences was erected at the inside. Spring house of Negarestan Garden now is the National Art Museum of Iran. This collection includes works of arts from Iranian artists which is located in the north of Parliament Square.
It has two building inside by the name ‘Hall of Delgosha’ and ‘Hall of Ghalamdan’. Rooms with wooden doors and two large halls around the central building is there. The garden has 64 rooms, four emulator and library. Forums are decorated with mirror work, golden work and precious chandeliers and hand signs of artists such as Johnny Mirza, Mirza Baba and Abdullah Khan has drawn on it. Negarestan Garden has regular streets and trees and flowers are planted beautifully. Several large and small mansions are built in the garden, which includes a spring house, pergola, bath slides, inside and more.
Now it has several statues in itself like ‘Kamal-ol-molk’, the Iranian famous painter and the Ferdowsi statue and the Iranian famous poet ‘Malek Al-Shoara Bahar'(Mohammad-Taqi Bahar) and . .
Baharestan Palace is the Iranian parliament historic building that opened in 1906. 25 years After the Islamic revolution, on 2004 the parliament became unicameral and moved to a new building in Baharestan.
‘Mirza Hossein Khan Sepah-Salar’ in 1910 decided to build big mansions in Baharestan site, because he wanted to change the appearance of the city. Most notably were Baharestan mansion or palace.
Sepahsalaar Mosque and School
That’s the first and the biggest mosque in Tehran. That’s the glorious and the biggest religious building after ‘Chaharbagh’ of Isfahan in Iran. It’s design is a blend of Persian architecture and Istanbul mosques.
National Garden is the remaining of structures from the Qajar dynasty which was repaired by ‘Jafar khan-e Kashani. In that time Tehran was capital. It was symbol of Tehran before the Azadi tower, in old days.
The architecture of this monument is a combination of Iranian and European designs by that time.
It was the entrance of military square in old days but now that’s the entrance of Iran national library and museum and the remaining of old structures. Portal has a great crossing between two pillars of the parties. The exterior includes tiling designs with two lions, leopard, lion and sun, guns and cannonballs that can be seen. All three doors have iron gates which was built by ‘Mohammad Ali Kermani’ in the Tehran armory.
Shah Mosque of Tehran (after Iran revolution called Imam Khomeini Mosque)
It remains from the Qajar era & has 180 years old age. This mosque is one of the most beautiful historic mosques in Tehran. ‘Naser al-Din Shah’ ordered to be built this mosque and is why it was called. Due to historical evidence, this is the second Tehran big mosque after Bazaar Mosque or Atigh Mosque.
To going to this historic and beautiful mosque in the heart of Tehran, you can use subway and also have shopping in historic and old Tehran Bazaar and then give it a go to see the mosque.
Golestan Palace dates back to the reign of Shah Abbas Safavi and in the ‘Karim Khan Zand’ period, there have been fundamental changes in this complex, But the real importance of this Arg dates back to the era of ‘Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar’.
One of the oldest of historic monuments in Tehran is masterpiece of the Qajar era. This complex also called ‘Roseland Palace’ or ‘Palace & Flowers’.
The Golestan Complex belongs to a group of royal buildings which were once enclosed within the mud-thatched walls of Tehran’s Historic Arg (Citadel). That’s a masterpiece of beautiful gardens and buildings consist of collection of Iranian crafts and European presents from 18th and 19th century.
These are some of Golestan Complex places :
One Of The Symbols Of Tehran
The Azadi Tower was completed in 1971 and in that time the tower also named as Shahyad Tower, means ‘the memorial of the king’.
The architect of the tower was ‘Hossein Amanat’. He won the best design idea in competition for Azadi Tower design.
The tower is a part of the Azadi Cultural Complex, located in Tehran’s Azadi Square in an area of about 50,000 m².
There are several fountains around the base of the tower and a museum in underground. The architecture of the tower is a combination of pre-Islam and past-Islam architecture era.
The height of the tower itself is 45 meter (148 ft) and the cost of building this complex in 1971 was 6 million dollar.
Right now Azadi complex has a nationality & cultural museum and amphitheater. Here, for the first time, Iranian government revealed The Cyrus Charter of Human Rights.
Historical Bazaar, Monument
Monument, Museum, National & Resort
Historical site, Monument
Monument, National & Resort
Historical Bazaar, Monument, Museum
Historical site, Monument
Historical site, Monument
Historical site, Monument
Historical Bazaar, Monument